Unequal education opportunity in Pakistan for rural and urban areas and its evolution


  • Umer Arshad


rational action theory, culture capital, educational stratification or policy, Pakistan education inequality


Since independence, with the expansion of the scale of Pakistani’s education, the level of education, urban and rural residents has been improving year by year, but the educational inequality problems have not been effectively solved. Survey of last two decades showsthe influence of education, household registration, family, social and economic status, parental education, number of brothers and sister, has been evaluated on three factorshigh school, college, and university. The study found that the high school entrance opportunity differences in urban and rural areas have not been changed, technical college, college oruniversity entrance opportunity between urban and rural areas have potentiallyexpanded, father’s occupational status affects children’s education butother factorsremain same.The study shows that since 1981 no obvious change in unequal educational opportunity, the other rising trend in educational inequality due to the different number of brothers and sisters.The study shows that after the independence of Pakistan,the education structures and evolution of inequality shouldbe focused on people’s micro mechanism of education decision.


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How to Cite

U. . Arshad, “Unequal education opportunity in Pakistan for rural and urban areas and its evolution”, PIJ, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 10-25, Apr. 2019.