Pacific International Journal 2021-07-02T20:06:28+00:00 Richerd TJ Open Journal Systems <p>Pacific International Journal "PIJ" (E-ISSN 2616-4825 &amp; P-ISSN 2663-8991) is an international, nonprofit, open access, online, and double-blind peer-reviewed journal that has been published since 2018. This journal's main objective is to serve as an intellectual and scientific platform to develop and promote the multidisciplinary studies and research of the international scholars in the field described in more detail below. Pacific International Journal published the original research articles that identify, explain, and analyze real-world issues. It accepts full-length multidisciplinary research articles on a full range of topics. Pacific International journal is inviting submissions from authors according to the aims and scope of the journal. The PIJ is published in an open-access format – articles are published on the journal's website immediately after acceptance, giving the scientific community and the public unlimited and free access to the content.</p> MANAGEMENT OF ASPERGILLUS LEAF SPOT DISEASES ON Terminalia catappa IN SOKOTO, NIGERIA 2021-06-28T05:35:50+00:00 Muhammad Nasir Abubakar <p><a name="_Toc29643751"></a><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Research on the diseased leaves of <em>Terminalia catappa</em> (tropical almond) was conducted in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Permanent site, Wammako local government, Sokoto. The locations where the diseased leaves were collected, purposively selected because of the abundance of the tree species in those locations. The objective was to identify fungal foliar diseases associated with <em>Terminalia catappa</em> and then develop control measures of the pathogen. Diseased leaves were collected and taken to the department of biological sciences, Mycology laboratory, Botany unit, Usmanu Danfodiyo University for identification. <em>Aspergillus niger</em>, <em>Aspergillus ustus</em> and, <em>Aspergillus flavus</em> were the fungal pathogens identified and suspected to be the cause of the foliar diseases on the tree species. Suncozeb, a broad-spectrum fungicide was obtained for the management of these diseases. The chemical was applied at different concentration rates (50%, 100% and, 150%) and the zones of inhibitions were observed and measured. It was observed that the higher the concentration the higher the zones of inhibition; this was the case for all the organisms identified. Past research showed that high temperature makes this species prone to soil-borne pathogens and this is the case with the study area of this research. As part of the recommendation, since it was observed that 150% of Suncozeb clearly inhibited the growth of the pathogen to a certain level, a higher concentration of this same chemical will increase the inhibition zone and possibly bring a complete stoppage of the pathogen spread.</p> 2021-07-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pacific International Journal Effect of Intestinal Microbiota on Brain Activity: ANN Analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 2021-06-28T05:28:06+00:00 Bouharati Imene <p>Modern biotope genomics has been able to determine the characteristics of each individual. The intestinal microbiota has a direct effect on the brain and behavioral activity of the individual. Any change in it modifies the mechanisms of emotional signaling, behavioral and visceral nociceptive reflexes. The resulting signaling mechanisms of the gut microbiota and probiotics including variations in microbiota production influence brain activity. Studies on rodents with reported vagal signaling in response to intestinal and probiotic pathogens. Diet, genetic factors, environmental factors may play a role in these alterations. The result is that is proven by functional brain imaging. The resulting effect of this interaction can be recorded in specific areas in the brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Depending on different biotopes in different people, levels of stress or relaxation are recorded. The analysis of these variations allows having an idea of the effect carried by each alteration in biotope and drugs administered to soothe stress for example. However, these effects are far from accurate. Human physiology is much more complex to draw hasty conclusions. If the effect is much more pronounced in women is that they are more emotional, sex is a factor to consider. In this study, we propose an intelligent system for analyzing these variables. The analysis of the <em>MRI</em> image is very complex due to it is a question of defining the exact contours of the activated brain zones. Given the complexity of the system, an artificial neural network analysis with deep learning is proposed. The constructed system is supervised learning. Input variables are (Biotope classification, genetic factor, diet factor, sex) and an output variable that expresses the degree of effect on activation of brain areas in relation to the centers of emotions recorded in functional <em>fMRI</em>. The established algorithm randomly introduces values ​​to the input factors of the system to read predict the emotional effect on the individual.</p> 2021-07-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pacific International Journal