Pacific International Journal http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij <p><strong>Pacific International Journal </strong>“PIJ” is an international, nonprofit, open access, online and double-blind peer-reviewed journal that has been published since 2018. The main objective of the <strong>Pacific International journal</strong> is to serve an intellectual platform and ideas for international scholars. By promoting multidisciplinary studies related to business, social science, medicine, medical, agriculture, Engineering and Technology, Sciences, Pharmacy, Life skills, physiotherapy, Nursing, Commerce, Management, Social work, Architecture, Designing, Arts &amp; Law, Humanities, Journalism, Mass communication, Aviation, Library Science, Education. <strong>Pacific International Journal</strong> published original research article that identifies, explain and analysis real-world multidisciplinary Issues and published by Association of Pacific International, Pakistan with E-<strong>ISSN 2616-4825 &amp; P-ISSN 2663-8991</strong>. There is no limit and covered full-length research article, short communication, review paper, and case study, etc. It accepts full-length multidisciplinary research articles on the full range of topics. <strong>Pacific International journal </strong>is inviting you to submit your paper and paper will publish without delay. Pacific International Journal content will review by most prominent experts in the respective field. All published journal readers can read absolutely free.</p> Association of Pacific International en-US Pacific International Journal 2663-8991 <p><em><strong>Call for papers for coming issue</strong></em></p> <p>We invite scholars to submit an article/ paper/ book review/case study in the area of Management, Engineering, Science, Technology and Social Sciences like Economics, Education, Geography, History, Law, Psychology, and Anthropology.</p> Bedsider's Welfare at Ndola Teaching Hospital: A Cross-sectional study http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/101 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Bedsiders welfare is a neglected issue in the Zambian health system therefore, they are at risk of facing untold challenges as they care for the patient.&nbsp; With the current shortage of healthcare staff in hospitals, it implies that the clinicians may not be able to meet all aspects of the holistic health care approach i.e. social, mental or physical aspects of health and that’s where the bedsider comes in. Bedsiders are arbitrarily defined as the informal caregivers including family, relatives or friends for an in-patient of any hospital duration.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong></p> <p>This study evaluated bedsiders welfare as influenced by social determinants of health at Ndola Teaching Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Ndola, Zambia and used a multistage random sample of 199/228 participants, a validated structured questionnaire, employed non-parametric tests.</p> <p><strong>Primary outcome</strong></p> <p>This study measured the effect of bedsiders length of stay leading to health inequities as measured by social determinants of health.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Descriptive statistics showed gender disparity as three-quarters were female bedsiders. Inferential analysis showed that the duration of the bedsiders stay in hospital spent caring for the patient was associated with satisfaction levels (p 0.034), economic factors (0.030), employment status (p 0.027), and psychosocial status (p 0.013).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Economic factors (i.e. Inadequate finances) was the most critical factor reported which had the potential to drive families into poverty and financial catastrophe hence affecting the realisation of the universal healthcare approach in Zambia. A follow-up study should be conducted to assess bedsiders welfare after the operationalisation of the National Health Insurance Scheme in February 2020.</p> Imukusi Mutanekelwa Copyright (c) 3 1 The Review Paper on Genetic Variability and Divergence in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/99 <p>Wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum L</em>.) is the second major food crop of the world in its importance next to rice. In Ethiopia the crop ranks third in terms of total production next to teff and maize. It is largely grown in the highlands of the country and constitutes roughly 20-30 % of the annual cereal production and plays an appreciable role of supplying the production with carbohydrates, proteins and minerals. Genetic diversity and variability are essential to meet the diversified goals of plant breeding such as breeding for increasing yield, wider adaptation, desirable quality, and pest and disease resistance. Genetic divergence analysis estimates the extent of diversity existed among selected genotypes. In common parlance, genetic variability and genetic diversity are considered synonym to each other which is erroneous. Genetic variability is the variation in alleles of genes or variation in DNA/RNA sequences in the gene pool of a species or population which expresses itself in terms of alternate forms in phenotype. Genetic diversity, on the other hand, is a broad term encompassing all the variability occurring among different genotypes with respect to total genetic make-up of genotypes related to single species or between species. Genetic similarity or dissimilarity can be compared by genetic distance between different individuals. Genetic distance can be used to measure the genetic divergence between different sub-species or different varieties of a species. Different characters of bread wheat show different contribution towards genetic variability and divergence. Estimate of heritability is very important to know the attribute to genetic variance not only in bread wheat but also in any crop plants.</p> Addisu Dereje Copyright (c) 3 1 Evaluation of Master plan for Tourist Resort Using Geospatial Approach-A Case Study of Sonamarg Kashmir Valley, India http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/98 <p>This study has made an attempt to demonstrate the application of Geospatial Approach in evaluation of Master Plan for Sonamarg Resort most visited tourist place of Kashmir valley. Master Plan for Tourist Resort of Sonamarg was evaluated using topographical settings (Slope, Aspects and Elevation) natural drainage and land use land cover map. Evaluation of Master plan for Sonamarg tourist resort was carried out in two ways i.e., zone vise (A, B, C and D) and slope vise. High resolution Google Earth satellite images of IKONOS were used to analyze current land use land cover in Sonamarg, which are classified into 7 classes. ASTER DEM was used to prepare the slope, elevation and drainage maps. RETScreen Expert was used to get the climate data from NASA to correlate it with the Tourist inflow months. Results indicated that “Zone A” may exhibit conversion from pastures and built up into mixed zone and village settlement; “Zone B” from agriculture to river fronts; “Zone C” from pasture land to gulf course and camping areas; “Zone D” from built up, pastures and recreations sites to golf lodges and facilities areas. Slope vise evaluation indicated that forest should be on higher slope, recreational tourist including Golf Course, River Front and Organized Parks on the moderate slope while built up on the lower slope. The Rapid settlement expansion is seen as one of the potential threats to sustainable development and settlement planning coupled with effective resource utilization and allocation of infrastructure initiatives are other key concerns.</p> Ishfaq Rasool Gujree Copyright (c) 3 1 An article on muscle deoxyribonucleic acid concentration response to sublethal effect of ethanol extract of Nicotiana tobacum on juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/97 <p>Advancement in human knowledge in the utilization of available natural resources to effect positive changes, though useful in achieving the desired purpose, but if not effectively regulated and monitored, may sometimes present undesired side challenges. The quest to achieve nutritional sufficiency to the ever increasing human population through fish production is not left out in this phenomenon. To this effect, this research is meant to understand the muscle deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) concentration response to sublethal effect of ethanol extract of Nicotiana tobacum on juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Experimental fish were acclimatized for 14 days before bioassay and ethanol extract of tobacco leaf (Nicotiana tobacum) was made. Central composite design (CCD) in response surface method was applied to make a design matrix consisting of five design points per parameter or study factor. The study factors include exposure time, extract (pollutant) concentration and fish quantity per aquaria. Maximal effect condition as well as significant interactions were obtained and presented in contour and three dimensional plots. Individual effect of process conditions were studied as well. From the central composite design (CCD), process condition that has the maximum effect on DNA concentration in the fish muscle is; exposure time at 120 hours, extract concentration at 0.25 mg/l and fish quantity at 6. It was observed from the study on individual effects, that the process factors caused reduction in muscular DNA concentration of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).</p> Henry Nwakanma Copyright (c) 3 1 Analysis of Magnetic data by Logarithmic curves in parts of Federal University of Petroleum Resources Effurun, Delta State. http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/96 <p>The aim of this study is to introduce a novel technique used for mapping subsurface structures in a sedimentary environment using the magnetic exploration method. Vertical component of the Earth’s magnetic field and its derivative taken at 1.4m above the measured vertical field were acquired in parts of Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun using an AMC-6 high precision magnetometer. The datasets were analysed by logarithmic curves. Six magnetic profiles were established in the area five in the strike direction and one along dip lines. A total of ten stations were sampled along each profile with an interstation spacing of 2m. This was followed by the conversion of the vertical field into geomagnetic attributes after the necessary corrections were applied to the data. The data was plotted in logarithm to base two to show the pattern of distribution of the data since the normal plot does not show the distribution clearly as datasets show feeble changes and the readings were close in amplitude values. When datasets are close we check for skewness of the data. The result obtained showed regions of high data concentration which corresponds to a peak (highest point) on the logarithmic plot and indicates anomalous zones of interest within the subsurface. Map of vertical components of the area showed steep slope (closely spaced contours) observed towards the North-Eastern part of the area while at the central part, anticlinal structures which decreases gentle outwardly were observed and a gentle slope which decreases towards west was also observed. The result indicates the presence of anticlinal structures in the subsurface which have valley-like depressions between them.</p> Stanley Eze Copyright (c) 3 1 A DESIGN OF RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFIATION SYSTEM (RFID) FOR TRACKING AND IDENTIFICATION OF LIVESTOCK IN GHANA http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/94 <p>Tracking of any object is an area of intensive research. There are innovations, for example, Video Image preparing, GPS, RF Tracking, Wi-Fi and RFID that are accessible for this errand. Video picture preparing based tracking system can be reasonable for following huge items, for example, people. RF tracking and Wi-Fi tracking depend on received signal quality sign. For little zone and neighborhood situations tracking Wi-Fi based RSSI innovation is appropriate yet costly.</p> <p>To put it plainly, the significant issues in satellite based GPS, Wi-Fi, RF Tracking and Video tracking are precision, adaptability, size, compactness, equipment and cost of the gadget.</p> <p>Right now, Of Things (IOT) based arrangement with RFID is proposed for tracking men and material that is increasingly reasonable for India. In RFID innovation, understanding extent and cost of reader are significant area of concern, particularly if the area to be secured for tracking is enormous.</p> <p>Wireless repeater for RFID signal is developed and simulated for reducing the requirement for a number of readers to cover a large area for tracking. The special problems considered are animal tracking and farm automation, library tracking and automation and sandalwood tree tracking.</p> <p>In RFID technology, reader is progressively costly and tracking information assortment is harder. In proposed work remote repeater with switches is proposed to control the repeater to give better tracking data. By and by creature tracking is finished by GPS, GPRS and different techniques utilizing uninvolved RFID. RFID based systems at present depend on constrained area scanning. Be that as it may, in the proposed approach, progressively practical cell based wide inclusion algorithm using RFID, Multiplexer/De multiplexer, and ZigBee network which decreases use of number of RFID readers is being recommended.</p> <p>The libraries that contain huge number of books require extensive endeavors to organize the books in the spot effectively and rapidly, more than once during a day after various clients allude books aimlessly and are required to leave the books on the table. in issue counter, passageway and leave entryway for security reasons (Vasishta, 2009).</p> <p>In the proposed approach, a completely mechanized system for arranging library books and rack the executives utilizing straightforward RFID navigation and control algorithm is being proposed. When the book is stacked in the trolley, the reader will check the books and trolley will move towards the goal racks to convey the books. After arranging one book it will proceed with this following for different books. It is required to offer better outcomes in parameters, for example, since quite a while ago read extend (Weinstein, 2005), more sensor integration and being more affordable than GPS based tracking.</p> Nashiru Mumuni Daniel Bilintoh Copyright (c) 3 1 An Corporate Social Responsibility in the Sustainable Development of Bangladesh: An Overview http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/93 <p>Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is gaining fast global acceptance as a standard to assume environmentally sustainable and socially equitable business practices. Sustainable development, on the other, is emerged as a new development paradigm to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The study aims at investigating CSR activities in the way of sustainable development of Bangladesh. In doing so, extensive desk study and literature survey were done. Although internationally CSR is being practiced in the way of sustainable development widely, Bangladesh is still lagging behind. The difference between the world standard and the practice in Bangladesh shows the lacking here and the scope for further development. There are many challenges to implement CSR in Bangladesh. But its future and prospects are good. Companies can contribute to social and environmental objectives, through integrating CSR as a strategic investment into their core business strategy, management instruments and operations leading to the sustainable development of Bangladesh.</p> Mohammad Ahsan Ullah Ahsan Copyright (c) 3 1 Histopathological effects of tobacco leaf extract on juvenile African catfish muscle http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/92 <p>In Subsahara Africa, most indigenous small and medium scale catfish farmers have relied on the effectiveness of tobacco leave (<em>Nicotiana tobacum</em>) to treat ponds before stocking. <em>Nicotiana tobacum </em>in solution eliminates microbes and toxins which can be harmful to fish health. As a follow up, it is necessary to investigate if a left over minute concentration, has adverse effect on aquatic health. For this reason, the effect of ethanol extracts of <em>Nicotiana tobacum </em>leaf on the histopathology of muscles of juvenile fresh water <em>Clarias gariepinus </em>(African catfish) was investigated. The fish were acclimated for 14 days. Sublethal concentrations (0.25 mg/l, 0.50 mg/l, 0.75 mg/l, 1.00 mg/l and 1.25 mg/l) of ethanol leaf extract of<em> Nicotiana tobacum</em> in aqueous media were prepared. Each aquarium had 10 juveniles of mean length 6.9 ± 0.62 cm. After initial acclimation, the fish was exposed to the media for 96 hours. Histopathological micrograph of the catfish muscle tissue exposed to sublethal concentrations of <em>Nicotiana tobacum</em> indicate breakage of myofibrils, disintegrated myotomes, bunding of myotomes, lesions, hemorrhage and tissue inflammation. Preliminary Scanning electron microscopy of the ethanol extract of <em>Nicotiana tobacum </em>leaves showed the micro surface structure (morphology) and elemental composition of the extract. Results obtained from this work indicate that <em>Nicotiana tobacum</em> used as a biological control to eradicating predators and unwanted organisms in the ponds by local farmers in place of agrochemicals, if not controlled can exact varying degree of negative histopathological effect on the muscles of juvenile African cat fish, <em>Clarias gariepinus</em>.</p> Nwamba Copyright (c) 2020 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-04-30 2020-04-30 3 1 29 38 Exploring and Measuring the level of Workforce Agility among Indian Tax Practitioners: Principal Component Analysis http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/91 <p>The concept of agile workforce has been discussed as the core driver to an agile organization. For achieving organizational agility, people-centric workforce agility is significant input. Prior agility research has given the inordinate focus on the manufacturing and organizations, paying scant attention to people. This paper presents a significant gap in workforce agility by empirically examining the difference in the agility of tax experts in India. It checks for individual agility capabilities and their level observed level among professionals. Survey data from 220 full-time tax professionals employed at public accounting firms in India was used for examining the difference in the agility level. From an operations perspective, data imply that agile workforces acquire seven capabilities of responsiveness, flexibility and adaptability, up-skilling, collaboration, speed, proactiveness, collaboration and informativeness. The result unveiled that tax professionals displayed high-level responsiveness to changes and proactively learning new techniques and technologies. Together with, overall ANOVA result displayed high-level agility in qualified tax professionals and Big Four tax professionals.&nbsp; However, study marked a low-level interest in the cross-functional collaboration and lower-level IT-competencies in tax analytics, data visualization tools, IT-skill among both Big Four and non-Big Four professionals.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>The concept of agile workforce has been discussed as the core driver to an agile organization. For achieving organizational agility, people-centric workforce agility is significant input. Prior agility research has given the inordinate focus on the manufacturing and organizations, paying scant attention to people. This paper presents a significant gap in workforce agility by empirically examining the difference in the agility of tax experts in India. It checks for individual agility capabilities and their level observed level among professionals. Survey data from 220 full-time tax professionals employed at public accounting firms in India was used for examining the difference in the agility level. From an operations perspective, data imply that agile workforces acquire seven capabilities of responsiveness, flexibility and adaptability, up-skilling, collaboration, speed, proactiveness, collaboration and informativeness. The result unveiled that tax professionals displayed high-level responsiveness to changes and proactively learning new techniques and technologies. Together with, overall ANOVA result displayed high-level agility in qualified tax professionals and Big Four tax professionals.&nbsp; However, study marked a low-level interest in the cross-functional collaboration and lower-level IT-competencies in tax analytics, data visualization tools, IT-skill among both Big Four and non-Big Four professionals.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> thayyib PV Copyright (c) 3 1 Effect of exchange rate fluctuation on international trade in Bangladesh http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/90 <p>The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of exchange rate fluctuation on international trade in Bangladesh employing annually time series data from 2000-2016. This paper uses the unit root tests for data stationary or non-stationary and co-integration test for long run relationship. The Vector Error Correction (VECM) model has been used to capture both short and long-run relationships and the findings show the insignificant relationship between exchange rate and export as well as between exchange rate and import.The Granger causality test have been used to study the causal effect of one variable on another variables, basing on the test results we found that exchange rate to export hold bi-directional cause to each other.Whereas, on the other side we found that exchange rate to import hold bi-directional causation between them. This paper finds evidence that exchange rate fluctuation is the main factor that affects the level of international trade measure in terms of export and import flows in Bangladesh. It appears that if policy makers wish to promote export and to decrease import in order to improve the balance of trade in Bangladesh, they have to keep an open eye on steady appreciation of the exchange rate and to reduce volatility.&nbsp;</p> Md. Shohel Rana Rana Copyright (c) 3 1