Pacific International Journal http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij <p><strong>Pacific International Journal </strong>“PIJ” is an international, nonprofit, open access, online and double-blind peer-reviewed journal that has been published since 2018. The main objective of the <strong>Pacific International journal</strong> is to serve an intellectual platform and ideas for international scholars. By promoting multidisciplinary studies related to business, social science, medicine, medical, agriculture, Engineering and Technology, Sciences, Pharmacy, Life skills, physiotherapy, Nursing, Commerce, Management, Social work, Architecture, Designing, Arts &amp; Law, Humanities, Journalism, Mass communication, Aviation, Library Science, Education. <strong>Pacific International Journal</strong> published original research article that identifies, explain and analysis real-world multidisciplinary Issues and published by Association of Pacific International, Pakistan with E-<strong>ISSN 2616-4825 &amp; P-ISSN 2663-8991</strong>. There is no limit and covered full-length research article, short communication, review paper, and case study, etc. It accepts full-length multidisciplinary research articles on the full range of topics. <strong>Pacific International journal </strong>is inviting you to submit your paper and paper will publish without delay. Pacific International Journal content will review by most prominent experts in the respective field. All published journal readers can read absolutely free.</p> en-US <p><em><strong>Call for papers for coming issue</strong></em></p> <p>We invite scholars to submit an article/ paper/ book review/case study in the area of Management, Engineering, Science, Technology and Social Sciences like Economics, Education, Geography, History, Law, Psychology, and Anthropology.</p> editor@pacificinternationaljournal.com (Tang Jun) editor.pij@gmail.com (Dr. Muhammad Umer Arshad) Thu, 15 Oct 2020 12:13:47 +0000 OJS 3.2.0.3 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 STATUS OF KASHMIR UNDER THE RIGHT OF SELF-DETERMINATION WITHIN THE AMBIT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/116 <p>Almost over seven decades, peoples of the previous Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir are waiting for their right of self-determination, guaranteed by the United Nations. There are more than twenty-five UN resolutions, requiring the arrangement of the contest; India is hesitant to concede Kashmiris as their privilege of self-determination. By precluding the execution from securing UN goals and involving the state through the organization of more than 900,000 soldiers, India is disregarding International law and UN goals. Over the last quarter-century, Indian security soldiers sent in Indian Held Kashmir (IHK) have submitted huge human rights infringement. The contest about the State of Jammu and Kashmir is an issue of the right of self-determination for Kashmiri individuals. The paper in this way places into a discussion, the legitimate viewpoint of the Kashmir contest in the light of guarantees given by International law, arrangements of human rights, bilateral agreements, and conventions</p> Sheikh Muhammad Adnan Copyright (c) http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/116 A Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) Approach in explaining the relationship between Fixed Investment and Economic Growth in Rural China http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/115 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>A rural economy can be affected by fixed investment in a rural area positively or negatively. Investment in fixed assets is one of the core measures of capital spending in rural China and the rural economy is a prominent part of china’s national economy. It is important to study the dynamic relationship between fixed investment and economic growth in rural China. Based on time-series data from 1990 to 2016, this paper employed a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) approach to lead the stationarity test, Cointegration test, stability test, and granger causality test. The result indicated that, in the long term, Fixed Investment fluctuation promotes GDP growth in rural China while GDP fluctuation is not the source of fixed investment increase in rural China.</p> Khan Humayun Copyright (c) 2020 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/115 Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Uncertainty on Virtualization and Internet of Things (IOT): The Connectivity problem and the rise of localize edge computing http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/114 <p>The connectivity failure are contributed by device, intermediate device, configuration, problem duplicates IP, software problem or physical cable. The rise of connectivity problem is increasing with a virtual interconnected when involved Internet of Things (IoT).&nbsp; Many connectivity is dependent to each other. A dependency between each interconnected can cause a limited info if the chain is broken which cause inaccuracy of data path during travelling to the destination. Application sensor will collect a huge data, but the consumption of the architecture and processing based on real time and&nbsp; traffic can cause a segmentation of suggestion is changing. One of the example is a community based driven, which is depend on the user to active the application to get an information in real time.&nbsp; The more user active the application the accurate route suggestion.&nbsp; In this paper, it is about a study of connectivity, data challenge, opportunities prediction and analysis flow from application sensor by obtaining a dataset through a simulated community driven navigation.</p> Sharipah Setapa Copyright (c) http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/114 Investigating into the Culture Connotations of the Radical of Yu in the ShuoWenJieZi http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/113 <p>The paper gives the cultural connotations of the radical of Yu in the ShuoWenJieZi from two aspects. Firstly, by taking the radical of Yu in the ShuoWenJieZi as a foothold, the fisheries development during the Qin and Han dynasties is explored. Secondly, the diet culture custom and the development of fish-eating culture are explored</p> Wangxue Copyright (c) 2020 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/113 Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/112 <ol> <li>Abstract<br>The disruptive effect of novel corona virus disease otherwise known as covid-19 on the global economies has further amplified the existing worldwide unemployment thereby deepening the general poverty level. The huge economic and social pains resulting from this disease among the vulnerable especially the developing countries have become a stern challenge that warranted social welfare policy of the government to alleviate the cost of livelihoods occasioned by COVID-19. To contain its spread, a new economy of isolation, social distancing, staying at home, partial or/ and total lockdown of economic activities had emerged. The multiplier effects of shrinkage among global economic activities have caused millions of people means of livelihoods owing to loss of jobs and productivity resulting from lockdown policy. To determine the degree of poverty-deepening effect of Covid-19, the study employed descriptive content analysis (DCA) method to x-ray the level of prevalence and jobs losses. Also highlighted in the study are; the need for effective distribution of social welfare benefits and avoidance of deprivation of welfare benefits from the government to cushioning damaging effects of the disease. It comes to conclusion that the impact of corona virus pandemic is most horrible as its spread is leading to difficulties in accessing healthcare, loss of lives, jobs and perpetuating poverty. The study recommends the intensification of more and equitable distribution of social welfare benefits in form of cash transfer, healthcare subsidies, and provision of investment finance by adopting financial inclusion to promoting agricultural based activities Abstract<br>The disruptive effect of novel corona virus disease otherwise known as covid-19 on the global economies has further amplified the existing worldwide unemployment thereby deepening the general poverty level. The huge economic and social pains resulting from this disease among the vulnerable especially the developing countries have become a stern challenge that warranted social welfare policy of the government to alleviate the cost of livelihoods occasioned by COVID-19. To contain its spread, a new economy of isolation, social distancing, staying at home, partial or/ and total lockdown of economic activities had emerged. The multiplier effects of shrinkage among global economic activities have caused millions of people means of livelihoods owing to loss of jobs and productivity resulting from lockdown policy. To determine the degree of poverty-deepening effect of Covid-19, the study employed descriptive content analysis (DCA) method to x-ray the level of prevalence and jobs losses. Also highlighted in the study are; the need for effective distribution of social welfare benefits and avoidance of deprivation of welfare benefits from the government to cushioning damaging effects of the disease. It comes to conclusion that the impact of corona virus pandemic is most horrible as its spread is leading to difficulties in accessing healthcare, loss of lives, jobs and perpetuating poverty. The study recommends the intensification of more and equitable distribution of social welfare benefits in form of cash transfer, healthcare subsidies, and provision of investment finance by adopting financial inclusion to promoting agricultural based activities for Abstract<br>The disruptive effect of novel corona virus disease otherwise known as covid-19 on the global economies has further amplified the existing worldwide unemployment thereby deepening the general poverty level. The huge economic and social pains resulting from this disease among the vulnerable especially the developing countries have become a stern challenge that warranted social welfare policy of the government to alleviate the cost of livelihoods occasioned by COVID-19. To contain its spread, a new economy of isolation, social distancing, staying at home, partial or/ and total lockdown of economic activities had emerged. The multiplier effects of shrinkage among global economic activities have caused millions of people means of livelihoods owing to loss of jobs and productivity resulting from lockdown policy. To determine the degree of poverty-deepening effect of Covid-19, the study employed descriptive content analysis (DCA) method to x-ray the level of prevalence and jobs losses. Also highlighted in the study are; the need for effective distribution of social welfare benefits and avoidance of deprivation of welfare benefits from the government to cushioning damaging effects of the disease. It comes to conclusion that the impact of corona virus pandemic is most horrible as its spread is leading to difficulties in accessing healthcare, loss of lives, jobs and perpetuating poverty. The study recommends the intensification of more and equitable distribution of social welfare benefits in form of cash transfer, healthcare subsidies, and provision of investment finance by adopting financial inclusion to promoting agricultural based activities for food security. <br>food security. <br>for food security. </li> </ol> Idris Abubakar Copyright (c) http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/112 ECPS Effect OF THE 2019–20 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC ON Schooling http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/110 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The 2019–20 corona virus pandemic has influenced instructive frameworks around the world, prompting the close absolute terminations of schools, colleges, and universities. At the center of April 2020, approximately1.723 billion students have been influenced because of school terminations in light of the pandemic. As indicated by UNESCO observing, 191 nations have executed across the country terminations and 5 have actualized neighborhood terminations, affecting about 98.4 percent of the world's understudy population.[1] School terminations sway understudies, educators, and families, however have expansive financial and cultural consequences.[2] School terminations in light of COVID-19 have revealed insight into different social and monetary issues, including understudy obligation, [3]digital learning,[4]food insecurity,[5]and homelessness,[6]as well as access to childcare,[7] wellbeing care,[8]housing,[9]internet,[10], and handicap administrations. [11] The effect was increasingly serious for hindered kids and their families, causing intruded on learning, traded off sustenance, childcare issues, and resulting financial expense to families who couldn't work.[12] in light of school terminations, Universities suggested the utilization of separation learning projects and open instructive applications and stages that schools and instructors can use to arrive at students distantly and limit the disturbance of education.[14]</p> Imran thebo, Umeed Ali; Jamil Ahmeed CHanna Copyright (c) http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/110 PROOF OF FERMAT’S LAST THEOREM WITH USING OF EXPONENTS http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/105 <p>For n&gt;2, K( ) = &nbsp;&nbsp;and &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;= &nbsp; are satisfied by some positive integers x,y,z &nbsp;&nbsp;with sufficient values of&nbsp; K and L are must be more than 1. i.e for&nbsp; K=1&nbsp; AND&nbsp; L=1&nbsp; it is not possible to find positive integers x,y,z satisfies above equations. Clearly it indicates that Fermat’s last theorem, which states that No positive integers x,y,z are not satisfies the equation &nbsp; for any integer n &gt; 2</p> T SRINIVAS, Dr .K. SREEDEVI Copyright (c) 2020 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/105 Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Bedsider's Welfare at Ndola Teaching Hospital: A Cross-sectional study http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/101 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Bedsiders welfare is a neglected issue in the Zambian health system therefore, they are at risk of facing untold challenges as they care for the patient.&nbsp; With the current shortage of healthcare staff in hospitals, it implies that the clinicians may not be able to meet all aspects of the holistic health care approach i.e. social, mental or physical aspects of health and that’s where the bedsider comes in. Bedsiders are arbitrarily defined as the informal caregivers including family, relatives or friends for an in-patient of any hospital duration.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong></p> <p>This study evaluated bedsiders welfare as influenced by social determinants of health at Ndola Teaching Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Ndola, Zambia and used a multistage random sample of 199/228 participants, a validated structured questionnaire, employed non-parametric tests.</p> <p><strong>Primary outcome</strong></p> <p>This study measured the effect of bedsiders length of stay leading to health inequities as measured by social determinants of health.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Descriptive statistics showed gender disparity as three-quarters were female bedsiders. Inferential analysis showed that the duration of the bedsiders stay in hospital spent caring for the patient was associated with satisfaction levels (p 0.034), economic factors (0.030), employment status (p 0.027), and psychosocial status (p 0.013).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Economic factors (i.e. Inadequate finances) was the most critical factor reported which had the potential to drive families into poverty and financial catastrophe hence affecting the realisation of the universal healthcare approach in Zambia. A follow-up study should be conducted to assess bedsiders welfare after the operationalisation of the National Health Insurance Scheme in February 2020.</p> Imukusi Mutanekelwa, Mutale Chileshe Copyright (c) 2020 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/101 Sat, 04 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Review Paper on Genetic Variability and Divergence in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/99 <p>Wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum L</em>.) is the second major food crop of the world in its importance next to rice. In Ethiopia the crop ranks third in terms of total production next to teff and maize. It is largely grown in the highlands of the country and constitutes roughly 20-30 % of the annual cereal production and plays an appreciable role of supplying the production with carbohydrates, proteins and minerals. Genetic diversity and variability are essential to meet the diversified goals of plant breeding such as breeding for increasing yield, wider adaptation, desirable quality, and pest and disease resistance. Genetic divergence analysis estimates the extent of diversity existed among selected genotypes. In common parlance, genetic variability and genetic diversity are considered synonym to each other which is erroneous. Genetic variability is the variation in alleles of genes or variation in DNA/RNA sequences in the gene pool of a species or population which expresses itself in terms of alternate forms in phenotype. Genetic diversity, on the other hand, is a broad term encompassing all the variability occurring among different genotypes with respect to total genetic make-up of genotypes related to single species or between species. Genetic similarity or dissimilarity can be compared by genetic distance between different individuals. Genetic distance can be used to measure the genetic divergence between different sub-species or different varieties of a species. Different characters of bread wheat show different contribution towards genetic variability and divergence. Estimate of heritability is very important to know the attribute to genetic variance not only in bread wheat but also in any crop plants.</p> Addisu Dereje Copyright (c) 2020 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/99 Tue, 13 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Master plan for Tourist Resort Using Geospatial Approach-A Case Study of Sonamarg Kashmir Valley, India http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/98 <p>This study has made an attempt to demonstrate the application of Geospatial Approach in evaluation of Master Plan for Sonamarg Resort most visited tourist place of Kashmir valley. Master Plan for Tourist Resort of Sonamarg was evaluated using topographical settings (Slope, Aspects and Elevation) natural drainage and land use land cover map. Evaluation of Master plan for Sonamarg tourist resort was carried out in two ways i.e., zone vise (A, B, C and D) and slope vise. High resolution Google Earth satellite images of IKONOS were used to analyze current land use land cover in Sonamarg, which are classified into 7 classes. ASTER DEM was used to prepare the slope, elevation and drainage maps. RETScreen Expert was used to get the climate data from NASA to correlate it with the Tourist inflow months. Results indicated that “Zone A” may exhibit conversion from pastures and built up into mixed zone and village settlement; “Zone B” from agriculture to river fronts; “Zone C” from pasture land to gulf course and camping areas; “Zone D” from built up, pastures and recreations sites to golf lodges and facilities areas. Slope vise evaluation indicated that forest should be on higher slope, recreational tourist including Golf Course, River Front and Organized Parks on the moderate slope while built up on the lower slope. The Rapid settlement expansion is seen as one of the potential threats to sustainable development and settlement planning coupled with effective resource utilization and allocation of infrastructure initiatives are other key concerns.</p> Ishfaq Rasool Gujree, Arfan Arshad , Aijaz Reshi , Zubair Bangroo Copyright (c) 2020 Pacific International Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://pacificinternationaljournal.com/index.php/pij/article/view/98 Sat, 04 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000